What are varicose veins: causes, treatments and prevention

Today, varicose veins is a common disease. Statistics show that it occurs in every 4 people. The emergence of varicose veins depends on heredity, individual characteristics and the lifestyle of the people. What is this disease and what are the types and stage, you can learn by reading this article.

what are varicose veins

What are varicose veins?

Varicose veins is an extension of the vessels of veins, which is accompanied by a reduction in the elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels, the thinning and fragility and the formation of nodes. In the future, if this is not the case due to treatment, are observed veins capillaries, veins thicken and narrow the lumen. All these pathological changes lead to violations of work vascular valves, affecting the circulation of the blood.

The causes of the disease, the risk group

The disease is called sudden, it is suitable for a variety of reasons:

  1. A hereditary factor. The risk of development of varicose veins in children whose parents suffer from the disease, and increases to 70 %. It can be transmitted through the male and female line.
  2. Types of professional activities, related to a sedentary state, or a permanent ft (job behind a computer, a long car ride, hairdressers, salespeople, teachers).
  3. Physical activities. This may include some types of sports, lessons on simulators, weight lifting, heavy physical work.
  4. Violation of the working valve device of the vessels. On the walls of the vessels are no functional valves that allow blood to get up there and not give back, because of his slams. Insufficient heel-and-toe valves, the blood flows back and occurs the stagnation of the blood, which leads, in turn, the expansion and the relaxation of the veins.
  5. Regular walking in high heels, tight clothing (corsets, slimming clothes of bed), the excess of weight can also become a contributing factor to the development of varicose veins.
  6. Vascular disease (phlebitis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis), injury and inflammatory processes in the veins.

The knowledge of factors stimulants in most cases, you can prevent the disease in their manifestations or did not give you aggravated.

Types and stage of the disease

There are several classifications of varicose veins, disease. Let's look at the main ones:

1. Rating varicose veins, localization of the pathological process:

  • Varicose veins of upper limb – the cause may be genetic or heavy physical activity for the hands, for example, irrational incile muscle in the gym, the illiterate, the use of dietary supplements.
  • Reticular varicose veins – it manifests mesh and asterisks in the legs. If you do not take care of, to be complicated internal varicose extension.
  • Varicose veins of the lower limbs is considered to be the most common. Accompanied by swelling and heaviness in the legs, swollen veins, and trophic pests. Often, on signs, do not pay attention, and if going back to your doctor with the execution of a form.
  • Varicose veins of the pelvis – can occur in women. The cause of the development can become frequent and complex birth, the intake of hormones, incorrect positioning of the uterus, inflammation of internal genitals, sedentary work, hemorrhoids.
  • Varicose veins of the genitals to the women, in addition to the above organs can still meet varicose veins labia and vagina, and men have a varicocele, and the extension of the veins of the penis.
  • Varicose veins internal organs – can be varicose veins of the esophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum (hemorrhoids). Typically, they are the result of co-morbidities.

2. Classification of depth of a disease process:

  • intradermal;
  • the subcutaneous;
  • varicose veins of large and small veins.

3. The international classification that they enjoy today all phlebologists:

  • 0 class – varicose signs are not present, but the patient may complain of pain or heaviness in the legs;
  • 1 class – visually perceptible vascular mesh and star, muscle spasms;
  • Grade 2 – during the inspection are visible swollen vienna;
  • Grade 3 – swelling in the region of the leg, ankle and foot, which does not pass, even after leisure;
  • Class 4 – skin lesion (change in the color of the skin, itching, blisters);
  • Class 5 – education trophic ulcers;
  • Class 6 – the scars, ulcers, scars. They increase in size and in number.

There are different phases of the course of the disease (In. With. Rates):

  • the phase compensation may be complaints about fatigue or discomfort in the legs, objectively, one can notice swollen of vienna, in one or two legs, varicose veins;
  • the stage of subcompensation – manifests itself in the form of complaints of a pressure sensation within the blood vessels, nocturnal cramps, numbness in the area of the calf, the swelling of the legs and ankles at night;
  • the phase of decompensation – the available the added symptoms of alteration of skin from the integument in the form of pigmentation, predjisone and ulcerative defeat, the bulge in the form of cones in your veins, burning sensation and pain in the limbs.
the symptoms of varicose veins

The symptom of varicose veins

Clinical varicose veins, determined by the degree of the disease. The initial phase can flow in secret, or with small symptoms, which, normally, is not paying attention. Varicose veins are typically begins with the gravity and pain in the legs, the education of the vascular veins and asterisks. Then join in-if such symptoms as soft tissue swelling, nocturnal cramps, sensation of heat in the course of the veins, tingling and sensation of crawling axles. During the inspection, it is possible to realize an increase in painful stages, swollen, vienna and sites.

When progression heavy phases of the skin of the affected areas, it acquires a dark color, becomes rough and may appear vulnerati patches of skin (wounds, which for a long time to heal). All of these changes are accompanied by a problem of skin itching.


When common signs and symptoms of the varicose veins usually there is no doubt about your current varicose veins, the disease. But for the precision vascular surgeon or phlebologist should send the following types of diagnosis of the disease:

  1. Machine ultrasonic dopplerography – sets the state of the blood flow and the permeability of the blood vessels.
  2. Angiography is performed through the introduction of a vase of contrast media, and then radiology research.
  3. Duplex angioscanning. – allows you to determine the state of the blood vessels, to reveal the presence of blood clots. Includes 2 method: ultrasound soft tissue, and dopplerography of blood vessels.
  4. Cbc.

Many times, it's not necessary special investigative techniques, because the complaint of the patient, and the objective is the inspection do not give the question the presence of varicose veins, disease.

Methods of treatment of varicose veins

The fight with the varicose veins is a lengthy process, which requires adjuvant therapy. It includes methods of traditional, non-traditional and folk medicine.

Compression therapy

Antivaricose stockings, socks or tights are an effective means in the treatment of varicose veins the initial phase and as maintenance therapy during the entire treatment, and prevention. There are several classes of compression clothing, applied at different stages of the disease.

Medical therapy

Consists of oral medications, gels, or ointments for external use:

  • angioprotectors;
  • medicines to thin the blood;
  • anti-inflammatory tools.


The treatment of the infestation of leeches. This therapeutic method applies when the execution stages of varicose veins with complications (thrombophlebitis). Leeches stand out in the blood of a special substance, which acts in blood clotting.

Therapeutic exercise and exercise

Swimming, gym, hiking, physical exercise, prevent the stagnation of blood and improve blood circulation. Correctly chosen medical gym allows you to improve venous and arterial, circulation of the blood, to restore the tone of the vascular and alert stagnation of the blood. When varicose veins useful will be a simple walk or bike ride. And there are also special exercises that apply the disease.

A set of exercises, that are applicable to the varicose veins of the upper and lower limbs, pelvic and inguinal area:

  • an exercise "bike". Is performed in the supine position, the need for "cycling" before the onset of fatigue;
  • in the down position, raise your legs up and hold it for a few seconds and after a few seconds in the folded position. Omit on the ground, and again repeat the steps.
  • in the sitting position (legs supported on the floor. To carry out the rotating movement of the foot in different directions, and when you do this, the heel should drop to the ground. Do 15 to 20 times;
  • stay standing and do the focus with the heels in socks, repeat the movement 20 times;
  • make the intensification of the movement in the local, with the socks does not lift off the ground. The movement of doing 10-15 minutes;
  • jump over the semi 15 to 20 times, then stand fully upright for a few seconds and repeat the movement;
  • in the reclined position the hands are along the torso, legs, lift, and rotate clockwise and back, in and of itself, the wiggle of fingers. Before making the tiredness, after a brief holiday of the year repeat.

When it is convenient or during the leisure time you need to work harder to raise the legs above the head or the chest. Medical gym stimulates the muscles of the body more active than work, which is good, affects the vessels and the movement of the blood from them.

The methods of folk medicine

There are many homemade recipes that facilitate the patient's condition in the early stages and go in parallel as a complementary treatment. The tools can relieve symptoms related to the disease, but cure it, they are not able to. Which can be applied in this case:

the apple cider vinegar when varicose veins
  • The apple cider vinegar. You can lubricate them affected space 2-3 times per day. Also acetic break: hydration napkin to attach to the beating veins, top cover with polyethylene and apply a dressing for fixation. Then, your feet need to keep your spirits high position for 15 to 20 minutes. The procedures are the morning and evening.
  • Green walnut. You should cut the nuts, folded in a pot and cover with olive oil. Composition put in 40-45 days in a sunny place. After the time according to the grout clean up the sick plots.
  • Tincture of Kalanchoe. In dimidium-liter bottle of double leaves Kalanchoe, and cover it with alcohol or vodka. Let stand for 6 to 7 days in a dark place, sometimes, turning the tin. The finished tincture to clean the sick space before sleep, is the treatment within 3-4 months.
  • Garlic ointment. The sting of your add the vegetable oil in the ratio of 1:2. Before you sleep, and the tool to spread the butter on the patients of vienna, spider veins and stars, and to the top and secure the bandage. In the morning the cuff of the clean and processed on the spot to rinse it with warm water. The tool effectively in the manifestations of the disease, need to use 2 to 3 weeks.
  • Nutmeg. Take 1 teaspoon of powder, tablespoon of coconut and pour boiling water. Let it stand for half an hour, and then add a tablespoon of honey, and drink broth in the morning on an empty stomach. For efficiency, you can drink the broth in the same amount in a few hours. This tool can be taken throughout the year.

The application of the methods of estimation of treatment requires the approval of the doctor-phlebologist. He assesses the stage and the scale of the disease, choose the best recipe in the treatment of varicose veins.

Surgical interventions

Apply to heavy duty and execution stages of varicose veins. These include:

  • sclerotherapy is performed by injection into the vein affected special the substance that fills the lumen of the vessel and disables it the total blood circulation. To fix the effect, you need to wearing a compression garment. The number of such procedures, defines the physician depending on the degree of the disease;
  • therapy laser irradiation affected of vienna, the laser beam leads to overlap, and the blood moves on healthy blood;
  • phlebectomy – online method of removal of the dead varicose veins, what happens in such cases, when the treatment methods will have no effect.

When any a period of illness and degree of treatment must be under the supervision of your doctor. Complying with all his instructions, and, in the future, by following the prevention measures you can get rid of this disease forever.


What are prevention measures to prevent the disease in healthy people and for people who are in the risk group?

  • to regulate their day's work (especially those who have a long-term work seat or permanent residence need to do physical exercise);
  • use mesh compression preventative measure for all those who are in the risk group;
  • the women many times it is not possible to engage the shoes with high heels;
  • do not take very hot baths and for a long time in the sauna;
  • more walking, cycling, swimming;
  • stop smoking and alcohol consumption;
  • keep your weight within healthy limits normal;
  • get rid of the habit of sitting down, throwing one leg over the other;
  • the hormonal manipulation of the body;
  • it is helpful to give to walk with bare feet.

By following these simple recommendations, you can protect yourself against this insidious disease and warn its development in the early stages.

Making the findings it can be noted that varicose veins is a very dangerous disease that progresses quickly and leaves behind it the unpleasant consequences. Timely appeal to the medical and competent comprehensive treatment stop the disease process and prevent the emergence of complications.