Varicose veins (varicose veins) is one of the most common and oldest diseases of the cardiovascular system. With the help of the egyptian papyri and of the excavation, was found a mummy with signs of varicose veins.
The definition of "Varicose" comes from the Latin word "d", which means "extension", therefore, the disease received the name "Varicose veins". This disease is characterized by one and the increased length in the peripheral vein in the form of a serpentibus deformations, as well as a violation of the flow of blood to it, resulting from failure valve apparatus and the weakening of its wall. The disease most commonly affects the veins of the lower limbs, as well as the main load of the output of blood (large volume), that represent exactly of them, so preference is given to this section.
Anatomy of the veins of the lower limbs
In the area of the lower limb are distinguished 2 groups of veins: superficial and deep. The first group (of the surface of vienna), is located in the subcutaneous body fat; the second group (the deep) is more profound, therefore, are accompanied by the arteries.The first and the second group are connected to each other by means of perforating veins. A skeleton of walls formed of elastic and collagen fibers.
The wall of the veins is divided into 3 layers:
- the outer layer - the adventitia, is composed of friable connective tissue and smooth muscle cells of cells located longitudinally, surrounded by small blood vessels and nerves supply vienna
- the middle layer - the media, are included in the smooth muscle cells located circular
- the inner layer - the sex, formed the endothelium, which is composed of smooth muscle cells located longitudinally, it makes folds in the shape of swallow nests, which are located opposite one another, the bearers of the title of "valves" maintenance of the tonus of the vessel wall.
Valves of the veins are, therefore, assured the centripetal direction of blood from the lower limbs to the heart, veins superficial to deep, preventing the return of blood flow and increase the pressure. When you close the protected by small vessels (venules, capillaries) in the case of pressure increase during the job injuries-muscle pump venous of lower limbs. Therefore, the defeat of the middle and/or inner layer of the venous wall leads to the development of varicose veins.
Large subcutaneous vienna walk, passes to the inner part of the lower limb, has several valves, it drops many veins collect the blood from the front of the thigh
Small subcutaneous vienna foot – passes to the outer part the lower limb, also has valves, fall small veins on the side and the back surface of the leg, both veins unite among themselves to push the veins.
- Deep vienna: (Rear and Front large tibia of vienna, Popliteal vienna, Buttocks vienna) is a group of veins that are being achieved at a later stage of the disease in case of no effective treatment or not.
Causes and risk factors for the development of varicose veins
The exact cause of the disease is unknown, we only know that, under the influence of some factors develops the weakening of the valves, the pressure increase and loss of elasticity of the wall surface, and a tangle of veins.
- Genetic predisposition: the transfer of the varicose veins by inheritance occurs as a result of a mutation of the gene responsible for the construction of the wall of the vessel, as a result of a mutation the children are born with innate weakness of the connective or muscular tissue of the wall of the vessel, or the disadvantage of their valves (the amount), and as a result occurs the weakness of the vessel wall and increased pressure in the veins.
- Hormonal changes (pregnancy, menopause): when the pregnancy changes the hormonal composition of the body (increased levels of progesterone and reduced estrogen), which affect the formation of blood clotting factors (increase), decrease in the tonus of the venous wall (as a result of the destruction of collagen and elastic fibers of the vessel wall), all of this leads to the formation of clots, obstruction of blood vessels and their deformation.
- Obesity: excess weight leads to sedentarius style of life, in consequence of which the deceleration of blood circulation, in addition to excess fat, increases intra-abdominal pressure, which violates the output of the blood in your veins, resulting in that develops from the venous stasis and the possibility of the development of the disease.
- Diabetes mellitus: a chronic of high levels of sugar in the blood, with time, damages the walls of blood vessels, which is a good medium for the development of a blood clot.
- Alcohol abuse: excessive alcohol consumption leads to dehydration of the body and the thickening of the blood, resulting in forming clots that obstruct vienna and violate the blood outflow.
- The lifting of weights (the porters),a long journey of long years, or stagnant labour (sellers, jigs): is related with the decrease of the muscle tone, increased intra-abdominal pressure and, consequently, the deceleration and the difficulty of the blood flow to the heart and to the development of stagnation in the lower limbs.
- Defects blood clotting disorders: innate hypercoagulation (excess production of factors collapsible blood) leads to the formation of blood clots and cause the promotion of blood through the blood vessels.
- Irrational supply: the lack of some vitamins in the food (vit.Com a, S, P, plant fibres play a role in the reinforcement of the wall of the vessels and improve circulation).
- Wearing close clothing: permanent it wearing takes the machine from compression of the veins, which causes the obstruction of the venous turnover of the lower limbs.
- Overdose of drugs, promote the coagulation of the blood: the risk of formation of blood clots and occlusion.
- Surgical interventions:the loss of some volume of blood, it is not comfortable position on the operating table (compressing some of the blood vessels), which lead to the risk of occurrence of blood clots.
Complications of varicose veins
- The formation of blood clots, resulting in stagnation of blood in the veins;
- the detachment of a blood clot and occlusion of the vessel coincides with its diameter;and
- thrombophlebitis (due to the formation of a blood clot in the lumen of the vein occurs the inflammation of your wall).
- pulmonary embolism (cut off by a clot in the bloodstream falls in the pulmonary artery, which is involved in the movement of a small circle. If the diameter of a blood clot coincides with the diameter of the trunk of this artery, can occur sudden death. If a blood clot smaller than the diameter, it goes further in the branch of the pulmonary artery, causing myocardial easy, or swelling).
- trophic ulcer or eczema feet, in consequence of the violation of power supply (poor circulation of blood leads to a lack of oxygenation in the tissue, which is the most important energy to the tissues of the body);
- swelling of different areas of the body resulting from the stagnation in your veins (they are soft, stretchy, cyanotic color, your education does not depend on the time of day, are often trained in the area of the affected area);
- dermatitis (inflammation of the skin in the affected area), due to violation of the power of this stage;
- the change of color of the skin in the area affected area;
- the seal of subcutaneous fat, the fat in the region of the affected area due to swelling.
Diagnosis varicose veins
- The ultrasound duplex vein more informative method allows to evaluate blood flow in the vessel, and to see the vase.
- Dopplerography method, with which it is estimated is only the blood flow in this vessel;
- Phlebography - the introduction of contrast media intravenously, and the study of x-rays of the painting;
- Phleboscintigraphy. – intravenous administration radiopharmaceutical and surveillance in the special device.
To search only the surface of the veins: inspection, palpation, and the first 3 listed above of the method. The last 2 of the method applied to damage to the deep veins.
Treatment of varicose veins
- The drug treatment usually does not cure for a disease until the end, and only improves the functioning of the valves power supply of the wall of the blood vessels and the blood circulation, prevents the formation of new blood clots: are used the so-called venotonics are assigned in all cases, the varicose veins. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ointments are given in cases of complications such as venous thrombosis. Anticoagulants are assigned in the later stages of the disease to the resorption and the prevention of blood clots.
Remember that the best treatment can only catch the doctor taking into account the individual characteristics.
- Popular methods of treatment (as a complement to medical treatment): use compression knitted fabrics (socks); special physical exercises (swimming, biking, skiing, the feet above the head, a special facility ("bicycle" - lying on his back, and just breathe, imagine that you ride the bike; alternately, fold, and drop of the foot at the ankle joint for the front and back) are applied to improve the output of blood, but only in complicated cases do not); contrast showers (under the jet of water to keep the feet, gradually reducing the temperature of the water reaching the cold) ; anklets trays (not hot) broth of oak bark, chestnut, chamomile, st. john's; rubbing alcohol infusion of the flowers of acacia, the leaves of Kalanchoe, apple cider vinegar; thrombophlebitis treatment of the infestation of leeches.
- The routine of the day: in the morning, the slow increase of the bed (approximately 5 to 10 minutes), during sleep insert pieces of a cushion under the heel to elevate the foot in about 15 to 200 relative to bed, the walk must be calm, it is not possible to sit transierunt the foot on the leg, connect the feet elastic bandage from the foot up to the top of the hip, wearing medical stocking, balanced diet, to avoid the tedious movements and of any substances or factors which promote the thickening of the blood, elimination of smoking, warning of constipation.
- Diet: the body is required products that contain vitamins to strengthen the walls of blood vessels and improve the blood circulation: vitamin c (contained, with citruses, tomatoes, rosehips, and Dr.), vitamin E ( beans, liver, egg yolk, green onion), vitamin P (grapefruit, walnut, currant), bioflavonoids (dark cherries, sour cherry), copper (seafood). Sufficient daily amount of liquids, at least 1.5 liters. Limited to the use of alcoholic beverages, coffee, marinated, smoked.
The best folk methods of treatment varicose veins?
The most popular folk remedies treatment varicose veins can be applied in the form of broths, ointments, lotions, and compresses; some herbs help and if swallowed.
In half a liter a bottle or can, filled to the half of the leaves and flowers lilac, pour the vodka or alcohol (to the top). Insist 7 days in a dark place, from time to time, trembling. Dye drain and use for the daily lubrication legs. The movements should be smooth, in the direction of the tip of the toes to the knees.
This configuration helps to relieve the inflammation, reduce the swelling, cramps in the calves of the legs and hide the pain.
The head of garlic, the cloves months in a meat grinder or push through the frog. Mix the garlic and butter, without salt butter (to get the double garlic) until smooth. From the dough make compresses throughout the night.
This tool helps to remove the pain, burning, inflammation in the problematic zone, also, the ointment has wound healing and bactericidal action.
For this recipe you will also need the garlic (head) and mayonnaise honey pot. Well, if this is the lime or the honey of buckwheat. Components mix well and put in a dark place for 7 days. After eating within 1 St. l. three times a day, half an hour before a meal.
Swelling, pain, feeling of tiredness in the legs quickly disappear; they are reduced, and the external manifestations of the varicose veins.
A little raw potatoes grate and lightly drain the pasta apply in the area of veins inflamed. To keep you around 20-30 minutes, you can be a compress to stop all night. The best effect will be reducing the intake of half a cup of juice of potato. The potato is well calms the inflamed skin, relieves the pain, burning, reduces swelling.
- Ointment spacecraftlUNMlOh
Make an infusion of calendula flowers (1 St. l. on a glass of hot water), to insist to cool. You can insist in a thermos bottle, inside of an hour. Then, drain and mix with 250 g of fat – vaseline, lanolin, badger fat. For a pleasant smell of ointment you can add 5 to 6 drops of essential oil of rose, bergamot, lavender, grapefruit, and Dr. the Mixture is recommended to be careful to rub it twice a day until complete absorption. SpacecraftlUNMlat for infusion can be mixed with thyme, hop shoots and provocations orchestrated by the.