What are varicose veins

Varicose veins (varicose veins) is a disease characterized by a decrease in the density of the vascular wall and the appearance of nodes. Often, when they talk about varicose veins, they mean varicose veins of the saphenous leg veins, but the disease can affect any part of the body at all. The most rare is the defeat of the lumbar spine. It affects the deep veins.

Almost everyone knows what VRV looks like. In the early stages of the disease, large cyanotic veins and blood vessels appear under the skin. They show that it is time for the patient to go to a phlebologist. An asterisk may also appear. Next, we will discuss the manifestations of varicose veins in humans and how to treat this disease.

What are varicose veins?

Although there are relative diseases, not everyone knows what varicose veins are and how they differ from other venous pathologies. Ulcus cruris venosum - vein pathology, accompanied by destruction of the valve, tortoise and its expansion. In the early stages, spider veins appear on the legs and limbs. They are difficult to find because they are located on the back of the lower leg or knee.

Chronic varicose veins are often diagnosed by doctors with weak offspring. At the same time, patients do not have a classic type vein deficiency. In patients, it often appears for some time, the skin of the feet becomes dry, there is severity, but then the pathological symptoms disappear even without treatment. This does not mean that the patient is cured, but only indicates that the disease is progressing quietly.

what are varicose veins and how to treat them

Causes of varicose veins

What causes varicose veins medicine is still unknown. It is believed that its development is strongly influenced by the patient's lifestyle. Varicose veins can manifest themselves with strong physical energy caused by the work or active training of the patient. The mechanism of varicose vein expansion is to increase the pressure inside the duct and the weakness of the valve. The following factors provoke the development of this condition:

  • hereditary tendencies;
  • hormonal fluctuations;
  • remains in the same position;
  • intake of highly toxic beverages and medications;
  • uncomfortable shoes and clothing.

The psychological cause of varicose veins is the stress a person experiences. Vessels, like other human organs, have no nerve endings. Under the influence of negative emotions or specific medications, they begin to produce impulses at random. This leads to changes in the density of the vascular wall.

Symptoms of the disease

The disease manifests itself in various stages in different ways. Symptoms of varicose veins in the first and second stages:

  • severe swelling of the legs at the end of the day;
  • rapid body fatigue;
  • heaviness in limbs;
  • feeling full in the veins;
  • seizures.

In the third stage, the symptoms of varicose veins begin to develop. Spoken veins are added to edema. Human skin changes. It becomes drier and darker in places. Against the background of insufficient blood circulation, patients begin to suffer from eczema, dermatitis, trophic ulcers. In the third and fourth stages of the disease, a person experiences severe pain while moving and resting. Compression underwear only slightly reduces discomfort in the legs and other body parts. Surgery is indicated for such patients.

predisposing factors for the development and symptoms of varicose veins

Diagnosis of varicose veins

Varicose veins can be diagnosed by a phlebologist with a visual examination of the patient. Blood tests play an important role in the diagnostic process. Often, apart from general analysis, patients have to pass specific tests for the content of cholesterol and platelets in the blood. Confirm the diagnosis using a patient hardware check.


This technique is suitable for the diagnosis of mild forms of varicose veins. With the defeat of the inner vessels, it is wiser to use phlebography. Also, ultrasound helps identify not only varicose veins, but also various muscle and cartilage lesions, which can also cause pain in the limbs and discomfort when moving.


This procedure is a contrast X-ray method to examine the patient's veins. A special solution is introduced into the vessel, which will be an X-ray beam barrier. Thanks to the procedure, you can assess the condition of the valve, find out the patency of the veins, and determine the presence of blood clots. If there is a severe allergy, it will not work.

Treatment of varicose veins

Not everyone knows which doctor to visit if they have the first symptoms of varicose veins. Some patients go to a cosmetology center to have a prominent vein removed or to a vascular surgeon. All this is a waste of time, because phlebologists are involved in the appointment of treatment for varicose veins. He or she will assess the condition of your veins and skin, and then give you a prescription for specific medications or explain what procedures you need to return your feet to their beauty containers.

Drug therapy

It is possible to get rid of varicose veins not just by surgery. In the early stages, medications are very effective. Patients are prescribed both in the form of ointments and gels, and in capsule form with large doses of vitamins and venotonic drugs.

Medication should be treated exclusively by a physician. Patients do not have the right to choose their own medication.

Creams, ointments and gels

Medications for this group act as a helper for varicose veins. They help relieve the symptoms of unpleasant ailments such as fatigue, swelling, persistent pain. One of the positive aspects in the use of creams, ointments and gels is the improvement of vascular tone.


There are many drugs that increase tissue trophism and blood circulation. They are selected for each patient individually based on blood tests and general condition of the body.

Compression jersey

Wearing special underwear and clothing is a good method to prevent the development of the disease in the early stages of varicose veins. You can buy knitwear with various levels of compression and various types. Patients may not be worried that their illness will be noticed by relatives, relatives or colleagues at work. Often, patients buy products for the feet: leggings, knee-high, socks, tights. Some patients are prescribed wearing a compression shirt and belt when there is a threat of developing varicose veins from the vertebral veins.

Types of compression pants for varicose veins

Compression knits vary in weave, stress and material. It can be prophylaxis, postoperative, prophylaxis and sports. They produce compression underwear from microfiber, huskies, cotton and nylon with increased elasticity. There are no seams on this jersey, so it can be worn under tight clothing. Laundry can be moistened to air and air. Depending on the level of compression, the jersey can:

  • Class 1.The pressure applied to the veins and channels is not more than 23 mm. rt. Art. It can be worn by everyone, some want to prevent the development of varicose veins.
  • 2nd grade.Greater pressure here and 33 mm. rt. Art. You can buy tights and underwear with a level of compression as prescribed by your doctor.
  • 3rd grade.The product presses on the venous wall with a force of 45 mm. rt. Art. They are prescribed for the treatment of severe venous insufficiency.
  • 4th grade.The compression level of the linen exceeds 55 mm. rt. Art. It is prescribed for severe edema to normalize lymph outflow.
types of compression socks for the treatment of varicose veins

How do I wear compression socks properly to make them work?

Clothes with a certain level of compression are worn right on the bed. This is due to the fact that in the morning the blood vessels do not swell and are not filled with blood, so the patient will not feel uncomfortable while pulling as high as a knee or a special belt. We recommend following these instructions:

  1. Turn the clothes inside carefully.
  2. Lock your feet so that your heels and toes are in line with your feet.
  3. Distribute items evenly as you wear them.
  4. When pulling a product, make sure it does not rotate.
  5. After placing the item, remove any minor irregularities.

Operations and Procedures

Medications are not always effective for varicose veins. In some people, the body simply absorbs or releases nutrients very quickly, thus not affecting cells and tissues. In such situations, the doctor refers the patient to a specific health procedure or surgery. It should be noted that only surgical intervention can relieve the patient of damaged veins. Other methods of treatment can only delay the progression of the disease for a short time.

Laser freezing

The method of treating varicose veins is a minimally invasive method. It can remove veins that are close to the surface of the skin. The deep veins cannot be removed using this method. The patient is made to a small size, and then a laser LED is slowly introduced through a catheter. Once the start of the vessel is reached, the doctor will activate the laser. It "closes" the damaged vein from within. It takes 20-35 minutes to process a ship, depending on its length. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia. The patient can return the next day after surgery.

perform laser freezing for the treatment of varicose veins

Radio frequency blur

This technique is similar to freezing, but instead of lasers, it uses devices that produce high frequency radio waves. Special guidelines are also channeled through the vein through the catheter, but instead of a laser, the destruction of the vein occurs using the power of sound waves. Patients were also given local anesthesia. After the procedure, the patient was discharged on the same day. After the reduction, you can not do heavy physical work for two days.

The essence of radiofrequency ablation of veins for varicose veins

Ozone Therapy

Intravenous ozone has proven to be a cure for varicose veins. But this procedure has many contraindications. First, people with hypoglycemia and diabetes are unable to expose themselves to ozone therapy, this greatly lowers blood sugar levels. Second, this event is contraindicated for people suffering from seizure syndrome and local circulatory disorders. The main feature of the procedure is that the drug with a specific dose of ozone is injected into the patient's veins. The type of drug and the amount of active ingredient are calculated based on the patient's blood test and the expected effect.

treatment of varicose veins using ozone therapy

Compression therapy

Some patients mistakenly assume that shirt therapy and compression therapy are the same thing. Actually, this is not the case. In compression therapy, local baroque compression is used using special tools. In limited areas of the body, excessive air pressure is created.

The main purpose of this procedure is to increase the lymphatic drainage of the lower limbs and stimulate the removal of decay products from the body. A special rubber suit is placed on the patient. It is divided into several segments, where air will be supplied, creating excessive waves. The instructions for use of this therapy are not limited to varicose veins:

  • restless legs syndrome;
  • congestion in the toes;
  • arthritis with gout;
  • postoperative recovery of veins, arteries and other ducts;
  • treatment and prevention of trophic disorders in the lower part of diabetes.


This term refers to a complete vein removal operation. It is done in two ways: using standard medical instruments and lasers. The second method is considered minimally invasive, but is rarely used in clinics due to a lack of accurate experience in handling equipment. Standard procedures include 3 stages: crossectomy, stripping, miniflebectomy.


Not many people know that cold sores can be used effectively. In European clinics, it is used in the treatment of varicose veins. This technique is called cryosurgery. The advantage of operation is that the ship is destroyed for a while under the influence of cold, but too much risk. An inexperienced doctor, in addition to the veins that need to be removed, can harm the surrounding tissue. In addition, not all patients have organisms that normally react to metals with negative temperatures.

cryosurgery as a method of treating varicose veins


This method of treating varicose veins is considered the most conservative of all. A special substance, sclerosant, is injected into a vein, provoking them into a rope. The composition of the preparation is selected individually for each patient. The undoubted advantage of the procedure is that after surgery the patient is able to return home. But sclerotherapy does not always help get rid of the disease. In some patients, the body simply breaks down the sclerosant, and the diseased vein enters the bloodstream.

Healing Exercises

Moderate physical activity is the best method to prevent further spread of varicose veins. You can start doing therapeutic exercises after determining the level of varicose veins. To normalize blood flow, it is enough to raise the legs upwards. If this option seems too boring for you, do a pair of scissors or birch exercises. Do not forget to stretch. It helps improve tissue nutrition. The specific group of therapeutic exercises should be selected by the physician.

People's solution

Instead of medicines to get rid of varicose veins, you can use a mixture of different medicinal ingredients and vegetables. This treatment will help well in the early stages of varicose veins, but some medications are also effective in the third stage of the disease. Here are the most effective folk remedies that can be used by patients regardless of the type of disease.

Chestnut Horse

The most effective remedies for varicose veins are those of horse chestnut. This ingredient is a natural antioxidant that helps normalize blood supply. Like other drugs, it has its own contraindications. You should not take decoctions and tablets with this plant if you have congenital intolerance to it. You also should not use traditional medicine without seeing a doctor. For varicose veins, you can use the following recipe:

  • 50 grams of esculus flowers pour 500 ml of 70% alcohol.
  • Enter the liquid for 14 days.
  • After 2 weeks, strain the resulting tingtur, and then drink 1 tablespoon 3 times / day.
use of horse chestnut for the treatment of varicose veins

Garlic with oil

This mixture has a remarkable effect on the condition of damaged varicose veins. Garlic along with husk is crushed into a powder, and then mixed with butter in a ratio of 1 to 2. The resulting gruel is used for compresses at night. Another helper for varicose veins is Kalanchoe. 200 grams of the plant was soaked with 500 ml of 70% alcohol, insisted for 14 days, and then smeared with the resulting foot solution.


Root vegetables not only have a whitening effect on the skin. Potatoes can also be used to treat varicose veins. 5 potatoes must be peeled and grated. The resulting gruel should be applied to the affected area of varicose veins. The mixture should be on your feet for 4-5 hours.

Apple Cider Vinegar

This substance is a natural irritant. Apple cider vinegar can be applied to the skin neatly or diluted 1 to 1 with water. Also, this ingredient is often used for medicinal lotions. In the latter case, you can add a few drops of orange essential oil to the vinegar. But there are strict contraindications to the use of this folk remedy. It should not be used if there are cuts or sores on the skin.

Complications of varicose veins

Without treatment, the disease begins to pose a serious threat to the patient's life. With severe blood flow disorders, patients experience trophic ulcers. You can get rid of it at an early stage with the help of medications, but the medication will stop working. Often bleeding appears against the background of ulcers. The most dangerous complications of varicose veins are thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis. In the first case, blood clots form in the veins, and in the second, the blockage of blood is completely or partially blocked due to blood clots.

Trophic ulcer

The formation of ulcers begins with a simple bite or scratch. It should not be ruled out that areas with the worst blood supply become "swamp veins". The wound did not heal for a long time, it began to swell and grow. Once the ulcer reaches the area of the subcutaneous fascia, the patient realizes that this is not a normal skin injury, unbearable pain appears. Ulcers can heal on their own if the patient adheres to bed rest and wears compression socks, but medication is often needed to stabilize the patient's condition.

trophic ulcers as complications of advanced varicose veins


This complication is considered dangerous for varicose veins. Patients often do not feel any bleeding, which can lead to blood loss, infection, or fainting. There are several types of bleeding:

  1. Shallow. It is provoked by cuts or scratches. Urgent need to heal wounds to prevent infection.
  2. Subcutaneous. It can arise as a result of injury or by itself. Hematomas appear in place.
  3. Outside. Due to superficial trauma, the venous wall is severely damaged. Immediate stop is required.


The disease is characterized by the formation of blood clots in the veins with a background of prolonged inflammation. Affected vessels can be one or several. The hallmark of this disease is that it only affects the external veins. Thrombophlebitis can be chronic or acute. Both forms of the disease are very dangerous for the patient. The disease is accompanied by significant pain symptoms. They treated him in the hospital.


This disease is diagnosed if the veins in the body are affected. Phlebothrombosis belongs to a group of diseases that are very life threatening, can cause the death of a person immediately. The disease is almost always accompanied by varicose veins and increased blood viscosity. In the early stages, treatment can be done conservatively, but if there is a strong blockage, the patient is directed to a venous incision or the introduction of a special spiral into the vessel that prevents the movement of clotting.

Prevention of varicose veins

Problems with veins in the legs can occur even in normal people without inclination, so it is important to pay attention to measures to prevent the development of varicose veins in the lower part of the leg. Doctors prioritize nutrition. The patient should monitor who he eats so much and what he consumes. Also, patients need to change their lifestyle, abandoning bad habits.


Food is a determining factor for the human body. It is not only the amount of calories that affects a person’s weight, but also the food itself. Abuse of fatty foods that contain a lot of bad cholesterol will lead to the fact that the density of the veins will decrease, and blood clots will begin to form on its walls. Therefore, doctors recommend that people who have a tendency to varicose veins (varicose veins) adhere to the following dietary recommendations:

  1. There are many foods and fruits of plants. They contain large amounts of vitamins.
  2. Try to eat light protein foods.
  3. Drink more natural fruit and vegetable juices.

Varicose vein symptoms are also shown in people who do not abuse poor and unbalanced food, but such a minority. Often, patients are diagnosed with chronic vitamin deficiency and serious cholesterol levels. Only 3% of patients who exceed cholesterol levels show poor liver function. The rest of the patients themselves cause a deterioration in their condition.


If you are already dealing with the onset of local venous lesions, then you need to reconsider your daily routine, and especially your eating habits. For problems with veins in the legs and other parts of the body, it is important to give the body proper rest. To do this, you need to sleep at least 7 hours a day. You should pay attention to your free time supply. It is better to wear an orthopedic mattress on the bed, it gives full body relaxation. Also, doctors give the following recommendations to people suffering from varicose veins:

  1. Wear comfortable clothes and shoes. If you can’t push high-heeled shoes, choose a model that is durable and anatomically correct. You should wear an orthopedic insole with your shoes.
  2. Go swimming. Even a short swim in the pool can strengthen the vascular wall.
  3. Avoid stress. According to statistics, 30% of people suffer from this disease because they are prone to constant emotional changes.
  4. Get rid of bad habits. Smoking and alcohol are enemies of a healthy cardiovascular system.

The most important thing at any stage of varicose veins is to follow the recommendations of a phlebologist. If your doctor strongly recommends that you abandon bad habits or sign up for a swimming pool, then you should do so.