Learn about the extent of varicose veins and how dangerous your neglected varicose vein condition is

Vessels and the heart function in our body without interruption. By pumping blood, they support metabolism and overall health. As the load on the ship increases, they need strength to withstand the increased pressure. Otherwise, the tone of the veins decreases, which leads to the expansion of their lumen and a decrease in function. The development of venous tract pathology is called varicose veins. If there is not adequate treatment, this condition can cause serious problems and irreversible consequences.

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Symptoms of varicose veins on the lower part of the legs

Varicose veins have several classifications that take into account different criteria. The disease can be characterized in terms of functional disorders, structural changes, clinical signs, and other factors. The international classification distinguishes the following types or classes of varicose veins:

  • 0 - early stage without clinical manifestations, changes in vessels can be seen only during instrumental examination.
  • 1 - small telangiectasias appear.
  • 2 - the expansion of small vessels can be seen with the naked eye.
  • 3 - there is discomfort in the affected limb and swelling.
  • 4 - disturbed skin structure.
  • 5 - pre -ulcer tissue condition on the affected limb.
  • 6 - the appearance of a trophic ulcer that is almost incurable.

Classification by shape

There is also a division of varicose veins into shapes, depending on the location of the pathology:

  • Local- small spider veins visible. Only subcutaneous capillaries are affected, normal blood flow is not disturbed, reflux does not occur. Looks like a cosmetic defect.
  • Segmental- expansion of small superficial veins causes disruption of blood flow and throws a certain amount in the opposite direction.
  • Extensive- there was a constant expansion of the superficial veins, during the study, blood flow was noted against the main movement. Patients experience a feeling of fatigue and swelling at night.
  • Localization- internal ducts are affected, blood refluxes, edema and inflammation occur.

When assessing a patient's condition, physicians typically use several classifications and provide a mixed picture of the clinical picture. This helps to describe the ongoing changes more accurately and determine the stage of development of the pathological process.

Classification

The main classification of varicose veins is the division according to functional disorders. He distinguishes three stages of varicose veins:

  • compensation;
  • subcompensation;
  • decompensation.

Sometimes they add a level of zero, which is early and characterized by the absence of clinical manifestations.

Let's look at each in more detail.

Stage of disease progression

The development of varicose veins takes a long time.Pathology does not appear immediately, but after continuous exposure to provoking factors. These can be weight lifting, an unhealthy lifestyle, pregnancy, smoking, and other causes. The change in the vessel occurs gradually, but it can be seen by someone who is already in the early stages. It is best to start treatment when the first symptoms appear. Depending on the degree of varicose veins in the lower leg, the tactics of therapy will depend.

Initial rating

At this stage of pathological development, proper treatment can not only stop the progression of the disease, but also lead to complete recovery. The difficulty lies in the fact that in the early stages, varicose veins are rarely diagnosed. This usually occurs during inadvertent examination, because the patient is unaware of external changes in the vessel, which are almost invisible at this stage.

Grade 1 varicose veins cause nonspecific symptoms, so most patients associate them with normal fatigue. May be disturbed by:

  • night fatigue;
  • burning sensation in the lower limbs;
  • painful sensation;
  • seizures;
  • discomfort for no particular reason.

Small purple threads appear on the surface of the skin - dilated veins. The affected area may sting bluish. More often, discomfort in the lower part of the foot - in the ankle, lower leg. This is where varicose veins usually begin, as the load on the veins is maximum.

In the first stage, symptoms increase in the evening, with prolonged standing or exercise. Often this is similar to normal fatigue after a day of work, so patients rarely see a doctor for advice and treatment.

Second level

A protruding vessel above the surface of the skin with second -degree varicose veins

Class 2 varicose veins are a condition with more pronounced symptoms and low effectiveness of conservative treatment. At this stage, the deformation of the vein becomes more pronounced.

This manifests itself externally, also for the well -being of the patient. The vessels appear dilated and may protrude above the surface of the skin. Nodule form - an area where blood clots, swelling and pain appear.

Normal blood flow at the level of varicose veins is disturbed; during the examination, the doctor detects reverse reflux due to loose valve contact. Numbness, tingling, sensory disturbances are added to the unpleasant symptoms. Sadness and pain disappear in the morning after a night’s rest, but at night they arise again.

Third level

Venous nodules in the third stage of varicose veins

In the absence of adequate treatment for class 2 varicose veins, the pathology continues to progress, as the vessels are unable to cope with the existing load. The aching limbs begin to function worse and cause constant discomfort. Disturbed swelling and sensitivity interfere at any time of the day. The patient had to restrict physical activity, but rest did not bring much relief.

Venous nodules and areas visible from the IVV increase the lesion area.From late clinical symptoms, problems with the skin join- loss of elasticity, dryness, itching or eczema eruptions may appear. Subcutaneous tissue is easily injured, bleeding and hyperpigmentation zones occur in it.

Violations of blood circulation, which are practically irreversible, lead to a lack of tissue nutrients and oxygen uptake by them. After a while, a trophic ulcer appears in this place, which can even cause minor injuries. Healing is very slow and difficult, there is a high probability of activation of the pathogenic flora. Such patients get deformities. It is a very severe condition that is often fatal due to a bacterial infection or massive bleeding.

The treatment method will be different for each stage. At the compensatory level, patients are able to restore vein tone with the help of compression and venotonic garments, and during decompensation, they will be completely ineffective.

Diagnostics

It is not difficult for a specialist to identify varicose veins and make a correct diagnosis. For this, patient complaints and external manifestations of pathology are enough. To accurately determine the stage of development of varicose veins, duplex examination, ultrasound scan, rheovasography are prescribed. Blood tests will help assess the possibility of blood clots.

Taking anamnesis is an important stage in the diagnosis of varicose veins. Doctors can identify predisposing factors: smoking, inactive lifestyle, heredity. Visual examination of the veins, changes in local temperature, palpation were performed.

Therapy

Treatment of varicose veins must be done to prevent trophic changes in the tissues and irreversible processes. Therapeutic tactics depend on the degree of varicose veins and may cover several areas:

  1. Compression therapy. In pharmacies, special medical jerseys are sold, designed for patients with varicose veins. Production technology specifically helps treat varicose veins, and also serves as a preventative measure. Underwear should be worn continuously, just wasting the night’s sleep. This will provide additional support for weak veins and prevent the development of pathology. Compression stockings are presented in different models for any limb, so that each patient can choose the appropriate option, taking into account the characteristics of his disease.
  2. Drug therapy. This is the most popular direction that can be used at all stages of varicose veins, as well as for the prevention of vascular problems. The basis of conservative treatment is the intake of venotonic drugs. They help strengthen the vascular wall, increase its elasticity and reduce blood stasis. It is better to apply it internally, as well as externally at the location of the lesion. Also shown is the use of drugs that help thin the blood and improve blood circulation.
  3. Surgery. Recommended at the level of advanced varicose veins, when conservative treatment is ineffective. It can be prescribed with a high risk of thrombus formation or if there is an inflammatory process in the affected vessel area. Phlebectomy is performed in the third stage of varicose veins, when the pathology is accompanied by blood clots and trophic ulcers.
  4. Minimally invasive methods. They are not abdominal surgeries, but the removal of damaged vessel parts using modern technology. Highly recommended for second and third degree varicose veins, when medications are no longer able to fully restore the structure of the veins. Such techniques are sclerotherapy and laser coagulation.

Traditional medicine

Folk recipes are very popular in the treatment of many diseases, including varicose veins. People believe that its effectiveness has been proven by years of experience, but this is not entirely true. Nature's gift really contains useful substances that help fight the symptoms of varicose veins, as well as strengthen the vascular walls.

Patients often make baths at home or compresses based on food or herbs for varicose veins. For example, the treatment of varicose veins with household soap or cabbage compress is popular. Positive reviews were received for nutmeg, aloe, honey, horse chestnuts.

However, doctors understand that such methods are only effective in the early stages of the disease. In addition, they can definitely be used to prevent varicose veins. Once the pathology has entered a more advanced phase, drug treatment is essential.

Why is it important to identify varicose veins at an early stage and start treating them?

The pathological changes that occur in the veins worsen as the varicose veins develop. It takes a long time to get the ship back to normal. The sooner treatment is started, the sooner the veins and surrounding tissues will restore their structure and function.

In addition to any treatment method, patients must follow a proper lifestyle - stop smoking, do not do too much activity in the gym, reduce stress, and take a walk in the fresh air.

10.03.2021