Vessels and the heart function in our body without interruption. By pumping blood, they support metabolism and overall health. As the load on the ship increases, they need strength to withstand the increased pressure. Otherwise, the tone of the veins decreases, which leads to the expansion of their lumen and a decrease in function. The development of venous tract pathology is called varicose veins. If there is not adequate treatment, this condition can cause serious problems and irreversible consequences.
Varicose veins have several classifications that take into account different criteria. The disease can be characterized in terms of functional disorders, structural changes, clinical signs, and other factors. The international classification distinguishes the following types or classes of varicose veins:
There is also a division of varicose veins into shapes, depending on the location of the pathology:
When assessing a patient's condition, physicians typically use several classifications and provide a mixed picture of the clinical picture. This helps to describe the ongoing changes more accurately and determine the stage of development of the pathological process.
The main classification of varicose veins is the division according to functional disorders. He distinguishes three stages of varicose veins:
Sometimes they add a level of zero, which is early and characterized by the absence of clinical manifestations.
Let's look at each in more detail.
The development of varicose veins takes a long time.Pathology does not appear immediately, but after continuous exposure to provoking factors. These can be weight lifting, an unhealthy lifestyle, pregnancy, smoking, and other causes. The change in the vessel occurs gradually, but it can be seen by someone who is already in the early stages. It is best to start treatment when the first symptoms appear. Depending on the degree of varicose veins in the lower leg, the tactics of therapy will depend.
At this stage of pathological development, proper treatment can not only stop the progression of the disease, but also lead to complete recovery. The difficulty lies in the fact that in the early stages, varicose veins are rarely diagnosed. This usually occurs during inadvertent examination, because the patient is unaware of external changes in the vessel, which are almost invisible at this stage.
Grade 1 varicose veins cause nonspecific symptoms, so most patients associate them with normal fatigue. May be disturbed by:
Small purple threads appear on the surface of the skin - dilated veins. The affected area may sting bluish. More often, discomfort in the lower part of the foot - in the ankle, lower leg. This is where varicose veins usually begin, as the load on the veins is maximum.
In the first stage, symptoms increase in the evening, with prolonged standing or exercise. Often this is similar to normal fatigue after a day of work, so patients rarely see a doctor for advice and treatment.
Class 2 varicose veins are a condition with more pronounced symptoms and low effectiveness of conservative treatment. At this stage, the deformation of the vein becomes more pronounced.
This manifests itself externally, also for the well -being of the patient. The vessels appear dilated and may protrude above the surface of the skin. Nodule form - an area where blood clots, swelling and pain appear.
Normal blood flow at the level of varicose veins is disturbed; during the examination, the doctor detects reverse reflux due to loose valve contact. Numbness, tingling, sensory disturbances are added to the unpleasant symptoms. Sadness and pain disappear in the morning after a night’s rest, but at night they arise again.
In the absence of adequate treatment for class 2 varicose veins, the pathology continues to progress, as the vessels are unable to cope with the existing load. The aching limbs begin to function worse and cause constant discomfort. Disturbed swelling and sensitivity interfere at any time of the day. The patient had to restrict physical activity, but rest did not bring much relief.
Venous nodules and areas visible from the IVV increase the lesion area.From late clinical symptoms, problems with the skin join- loss of elasticity, dryness, itching or eczema eruptions may appear. Subcutaneous tissue is easily injured, bleeding and hyperpigmentation zones occur in it.
Violations of blood circulation, which are practically irreversible, lead to a lack of tissue nutrients and oxygen uptake by them. After a while, a trophic ulcer appears in this place, which can even cause minor injuries. Healing is very slow and difficult, there is a high probability of activation of the pathogenic flora. Such patients get deformities. It is a very severe condition that is often fatal due to a bacterial infection or massive bleeding.
The treatment method will be different for each stage. At the compensatory level, patients are able to restore vein tone with the help of compression and venotonic garments, and during decompensation, they will be completely ineffective.
It is not difficult for a specialist to identify varicose veins and make a correct diagnosis. For this, patient complaints and external manifestations of pathology are enough. To accurately determine the stage of development of varicose veins, duplex examination, ultrasound scan, rheovasography are prescribed. Blood tests will help assess the possibility of blood clots.
Taking anamnesis is an important stage in the diagnosis of varicose veins. Doctors can identify predisposing factors: smoking, inactive lifestyle, heredity. Visual examination of the veins, changes in local temperature, palpation were performed.
Treatment of varicose veins must be done to prevent trophic changes in the tissues and irreversible processes. Therapeutic tactics depend on the degree of varicose veins and may cover several areas:
Folk recipes are very popular in the treatment of many diseases, including varicose veins. People believe that its effectiveness has been proven by years of experience, but this is not entirely true. Nature's gift really contains useful substances that help fight the symptoms of varicose veins, as well as strengthen the vascular walls.
Patients often make baths at home or compresses based on food or herbs for varicose veins. For example, the treatment of varicose veins with household soap or cabbage compress is popular. Positive reviews were received for nutmeg, aloe, honey, horse chestnuts.
However, doctors understand that such methods are only effective in the early stages of the disease. In addition, they can definitely be used to prevent varicose veins. Once the pathology has entered a more advanced phase, drug treatment is essential.
The pathological changes that occur in the veins worsen as the varicose veins develop. It takes a long time to get the ship back to normal. The sooner treatment is started, the sooner the veins and surrounding tissues will restore their structure and function.
In addition to any treatment method, patients must follow a proper lifestyle - stop smoking, do not do too much activity in the gym, reduce stress, and take a walk in the fresh air.