Varicose veins are a pathology of the venous system, in which there is inefficiency of vessels and valves in the performance of their functions due to their changes.
Varicose veins affect both men and women, but women are more prone to varicose veins. There are varicose veins in different parts of the body, but most often it is varicose veins on the lower part of the leg. The changes are gradual but irreversible. Therefore, the main task of the patient is to identify the problem in time and contact a specialist.
Varicose veins in the lower legs appear as a result of an improper lifestyle: inactive rate or excessive physical activity, improper diet, insufficient intake of pure water.
The most important provoking factor is a genetic disorder transmitted through the X chromosome. Hereditary predisposition to vascular wall weakness and valve device failure will eventually lead to the appearance of varicose veins in the legs.
During pregnancy, the risk of disease increases significantly due to increased blood volume and compression of the retroperitoneal vein by the uterus. By the same principle, tight clothing (corsets) and uncomfortable shoes interfere with blood circulation.
About 33% of obese people have varicose veins in the legs. Hormonal imbalances that occur after taking hormone medications and contraceptives are also a provoking factor.
Let's think about the normal circulatory process.
The venous system consists of deep, superficial and communicating veins and valves. Blood from the superficial veins flows in through the ducts (perforating) of the vessels. The valve prevents blood from flowing in the opposite direction. Venous tone ensures normal blood circulation and stable venous pressure.
The mechanism of expansion of varicose veins in the lower leg is an increase in blood pressure in the walls of blood vessels, which occurs during muscle pump operation. As a result, the venous wall expands, becomes thinner, varicose veins form, and valvular insufficiency develops. Venous blood reflux occurs - the reflux of blood from the deep veins becomes superficial. There is an increase in hydrostatic pressure, fluid stagnation, edema and trophic disturbances develop.
Varicose veins on the legs are shown in the picture below.
Depending on the stage, patients will present different complaints and see different symptoms. In the early stages, patients noted the appearance of heaviness in the legs, slight edema, and increased fatigue.
Symptoms may not appear at all during the compensation stage, so people rarely see a doctor at first. In the future, the described symptoms acquire a more stable form: the pain increases, the severity and swelling in the lower part of the leg increases.
The second and third stages differ because local signs appear on the legs: venous patterns, asterisks, spiders. There are many names, but the essence is the same - telangiectasias - small varicose veins in the legs, soft to the touch.
The fourth stage - the last, when the feet are very swollen, acquire a bluish -purple color, dry and flaky skin, pigmentation appears. The patient complained of persistent pain in the lower part of the leg. The veins can be seen with the naked eye, they are dense, winding, prominent in clusters. With timely treatment, trophic boils form in the last stage.
Varicose veins can be accompanied by complications:
If the path is complicated, the patient will experience an increase in body temperature and general weakness.
Everyone is worried about the question: what to do with varicose veins on the legs? The answer is simple enough - it's time to contact a phlebologist who specializes in the treatment of venous diseases. He or she will provide adequate therapy depending on the stage of the disease, the patient’s condition and venous insufficiency.
Initially, you need to eliminate all the factors that provoke the disease, normalize your diet and drinking regime, introduce small but effective physical exercises, and increase your physical activity.
If your task is to be in one position for a long period of time, you need to do gymnastics, walk or change support legs periodically. Your diet should be dominated by fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meats and fish. It is important to buy compression underwear or learn tight bandages. Such a method will prevent further changes in blood vessels, improve tone and reduce the manifestations of venous diseases in the legs (see photo).
Drug therapy includes prescribing topical medications that reduce swelling, improve tissue nutrition, reduce pain, and prevent complications.
Tablets are used at a stage when topical medications can no longer be overcome or are contraindicated. For the treatment of vascular disease of the lower extremities, endovasal laser coagulation therapy procedures, sclero and ozone therapy are prescribed.
Laser freezing - the effect of a laser on the affected vessel. After a few weeks, the venous pattern disappeared.
Sclerotherapy - fills a vein with a substance that "sticks" to its walls, blood begins to flow through healthy veins.
Ozone therapy is similar to the previous method, but ozone is introduced here. For the complete disappearance of manifestations on the skin, it is necessary to perform several procedures.
From surgical interventions, various miniflebectomies and stripping are actively used. Crossectomy is very traumatic and is rarely used nowadays. Phlebectomies are performed with a minimal puncture incision in which the vein is removed using a special thin instrument or probe. Patients recovered quickly, practically felt no pain after surgery, and after a few days they returned to their normal routine.
Some people prefer to use unconventional methods to treat varicose veins on the lower legs. But here you need to be careful, because not all methods are equally good at different stages of the disease.
In the early stages of the manifestation of varicose veins, you can use contrast baths, herbal baths. It is strictly forbidden to visit the bath, sauna. Relieves fatigue well and normalizes vascular tone chamomile, birch leaves, horse chestnut. From Antonovka apples, Kalanchoe, potatoes, they make a tincture and process the legs with it. But with such a recipe, you should be careful, it is not used for trophic wounds, bleeding from varicose veins on the lower legs.
As a precaution, do leg exercises in the morning and evening. Make it a habit. Try not to gain excess weight, watch your diet.
It is important to treat concomitant diseases that can cause varicose veins, and not just on the legs. Contrast baths are a universal remedy for tightening blood vessels throughout the body and hardening. Hydromassage should be done along the bloodstream - from the bottom up and alternately changing the water from cold to hot and vice versa.
Simple preventative measures will help prevent disease, and proper lifestyle habits and control of your health will help prevent not only varicose veins, but also other problems that may occur.