Varicose veins are a commonly diagnosed pathology. This disease, if left untreated, significantly impairs the quality of human life.
What are Varicose Veins? To answer such a question, it is necessary to have an idea of the mechanism of pathological development.
The leg vein is a branched network of saphenous and deep veins connected by communicating veins. Superficial veins are used to drain blood from subcutaneous tissues and skin, deep veins - from other tissues.
A connecting vessel is required to equalize the pressure. Blood flow in it is only possible from the saphenous vein to the deep.
The venous wall has no muscular layer, therefore, the movement of blood from the periphery to the center is performed due to the residual arterial pressure. Tendons take part in the process, which also exerts a certain pressure.
The main role is given to the muscle pump. During physical activity, the muscular system contracts. As a result, blood rises through the vessels, as backflow is inhibited by the venous valve system.
The lack of valves and the weakness of the venous ducts lead to the fact that the blood can move up and down. Excessive stress causes varicose veins, nodules, and venous insufficiency. At this stage, we can discuss the development of varicose veins.
Important! Varicose veins can also affect the veins of the upper gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach. Treatment is performed surgically.
There are many factors that can provoke the development of this disease. There are a few key points:
Doctors distinguish several classifications of this disease. Some physicians use a gradual classification:
Other classifications are international. It is used everywhere.
The saphenous vein is affected first. At the beginning of the formation of varicose veins, spider veins of a special purple color begin to appear. The place of localization is the ankle and the surface of the foot.
The initial stage is characterized by:
In the first stage, the following developments:
For the second stage, the following symptoms are typical:
The third stage is accompanied by:
Important! The presence of complications is indicated by an increase in body temperature.
With the formation of deep varicose veins, the following symptoms occur:
Important! With the development of thrombosis, symptoms develop suddenly.
Diagnosing varicose veins is not difficult. Ultrasound examination, venous x-rays using contrast, and blood tests to determine the rate of clotting must be prescribed.
Conservative therapy of the disease involves adherence to a diet, wearing compression pants and taking medication.
Being overweight is one of the factors that provoke the development of varicose veins. You must exclude completely from the menu:
The main part of the diet should be fresh vegetables and fruits, foods rich in fiber (they improve intestinal function, prevent the development of constipation), seafood.
Food must be fractional: at least 4 times a day.
Smoking must be stopped completely. This requirement applies to both men and women / girls. Inhaled resin causes blockage of blood vessels, and carbon dioxide causes it to spasm. This increases the risk of blood clots and associated secondary complications.
Wearing compression underwear is recommended as prophylaxis and treatment for the early stages of pathology. You need to wear it in the morning without waking up.
Important! When buying underwear, it is necessary to take into account the degree of compression, therefore, the treating physician should choose it. Only a specialist can take into account the existing symptoms properly.
It is impossible to get rid of varicose veins completely by taking medication. But it is very possible to stop the progression of the disease and reduce severe symptoms.
Venotonics are a drug that is often used in the treatment of varicose veins. They help protect the walls of veins, and also improve blood microcirculation by stimulating venous outflow.
Treatment with venotonic drugs is carried out twice a year. The duration of each is 2 months.
The drug is prescribed along with other drugs.
The venotonic format in tablet form is recommended for deep vein lesions. They have proven themselves well:
Treatment of varicose veins with this group consists of the administration of phlebosclerosing medication intravenously or the imposition of an elastic bandage. After the introduction of the drug, the vascular lumen is gradually closed with connective tissue and removed from the general bloodstream.
Keep in mind that isolated sclerotherapy does not provide stable results and cannot slow the progression of the disease. Often, its use is combined with surgical treatment.
Important!At the preparatory stage, ultrasound examination of the lower part of the leg must be performed to exclude the presence of varicose lesions on the deep veins.
This technique has its own contraindications. Ia:
As adjunctive drug therapy, the following groups of drugs are prescribed:
Phlebosclerosis therapy - adhesion of the vascular lumens - can be used in the following cases:
Important!The puncture technique is used at all times, but the catheter technique is used exclusively during surgery.
The phlebosclerosis puncture method provides for the closure of large and only small veins. Processing is done from top to bottom.
The broken line is drawn in a vertical position. Then the person is laid down and medication is started. If necessary to treat a large area, the procedure is performed in several sessions. Recovery lasted for 2 weeks.
Upon completion of the sclerosing procedure, the following recommendations must be observed:
Treatment of varicose veins with radio frequency transmitters is a new technique. During the procedure, the risk of vessel damage can be minimized as much as possible. At the same time, its effectiveness is very high: only the shell in the vessel is destroyed, the surrounding tissue does not suffer.
Treatment was performed with local anesthesia under the control of duplex angioscanning. Patients do not require hospital treatment.
The procedure itself looks like this:
The ability to work is restored after 24 hours.
The decision to perform the surgery is according to the ability of the treating physician. Surgery is the only way to completely cure advanced varicose veins.
The following techniques are practiced:
This is the most common method of varicose vein surgical treatment. The intervention was performed either under general anesthesia or with the implementation of epidural anesthesia.
The saphenous vein is removed through an incision of 1. 5 cm in the genital area (perineal area). It is used to introduce the phlebextractor probe. During its extraction, the inflamed venous area is removed. Small veins are removed through miniature incisions.
Upon completion of the operation, the patient wears compression stockings or an elastic bandage is performed.
Removal of the venous area is performed by exposure to an electric current.
Vein removal is performed based on the use of low temperatures. The technique is relatively safe, but sometimes calculations based on freezing depth are wrong. It is rarely used.
This technique involves the introduction of sclerosing drugs by the catheter method.
After cutting the saphenous vein, a catheter is inserted into its lumen. Simultaneously with its extraction, sclerosant is released.
Endoscopic surgical techniques allow ligation and exclusion of inflamed veins from the general blood flow system. The operation is performed using an endoscopic probe.
Important!A variant of the operation is transleumination phlebectomy.
The procedure uses a medical laser. With its help, the damaged vein is sealed, as it is removed from the general bloodstream.
Home therapy for varicose veins is not just taking medication prescribed by a doctor. Alternative methods to treat this disease can also be used:
But alternative treatment practices cannot exclude selective drug therapy.
Exercise physical activity is a major preventative measure for the development of varicose veins. If it is necessary to stand or sit for a long time, it is necessary to tighten the leg muscles periodically. Swimming and cycling will come in handy.
What are the dangers of varicose veins if left untreated? In the absence of adequate therapy, the formation of non -healing trophic ulcers is not excluded, which can lead to complete disability. That is why, with the development of characteristic symptoms, it is necessary to contact a phlebologist and begin treatment.