What are varicose veins, how to prevent or cure them effectively

Varicose veins are a commonly diagnosed pathology. This disease, if left untreated, significantly impairs the quality of human life.

Mechanisms of varicose vein development

What are Varicose Veins? To answer such a question, it is necessary to have an idea of the mechanism of pathological development.

The leg vein is a branched network of saphenous and deep veins connected by communicating veins. Superficial veins are used to drain blood from subcutaneous tissues and skin, deep veins - from other tissues.

A connecting vessel is required to equalize the pressure. Blood flow in it is only possible from the saphenous vein to the deep.

The venous wall has no muscular layer, therefore, the movement of blood from the periphery to the center is performed due to the residual arterial pressure. Tendons take part in the process, which also exerts a certain pressure.

The main role is given to the muscle pump. During physical activity, the muscular system contracts. As a result, blood rises through the vessels, as backflow is inhibited by the venous valve system.

The lack of valves and the weakness of the venous ducts lead to the fact that the blood can move up and down. Excessive stress causes varicose veins, nodules, and venous insufficiency. At this stage, we can discuss the development of varicose veins.

Important! Varicose veins can also affect the veins of the upper gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach. Treatment is performed surgically.

Risk factors for varicose veins

There are many factors that can provoke the development of this disease. There are a few key points:

  • Hereditary tendencies. This is expressed in the initial weakness of the vascular wall as a result of a lack of connective tissue.
  • Pregnancy. Many women during this period suffer from varicose veins. The cause is an increase in blood volume and compression of the retroperitoneal vein by the growing uterus. Sometimes the abdomen and veins in the chest begin to appear. As a rule, the situation returns to normal after the pregnancy ends.
  • Overweight.
  • Human lifestyle. Low mobility, static load, and wearing tight clothing can provoke varicose veins.
  • Improperly formulated diet. The likelihood of varicose veins increases due to insufficient content in the daily menu of vegetables and fruits, crude fiber.
  • Hormonal imbalances. The reason is the use of hormonal contraceptives.

Classification of varicose veins

Doctors distinguish several classifications of this disease. Some physicians use a gradual classification:

  • Level of compensation.No complaints. Examination of the limb showed several dilated veins, "stars".
  • Subcompensation.Areas of pathologically dilated veins are clearly visible. There is a feeling of fullness, cramps, night swelling. The morning passed.
  • Decompensation.Dermatitis, boils, pruritus join the existing symptoms. The skin gets a special feature of shine due to increased dryness. There are areas with petechiae.

Other classifications are international. It is used everywhere.

  • Class 0.No symptoms can be seen. There is a feeling of heaviness in the limbs.
  • Class 1.A network of veins and telangiectasias is visible. Muscle cramps at night are possible.
  • Class 2.The dilated veins are clearly visible.
  • Class 3.Edema continues to develop.
  • Class 4.Symptoms of diagnosed lipodermatosclerosis - dermatitis, increased skin pigmentation.
  • Class 5.Pre-ulcer condition on the skin.
  • Class 6.Development of trophic ulcers.
stage of development of varicose veins in the legs

Symptoms of varicose veins

The saphenous vein is affected first. At the beginning of the formation of varicose veins, spider veins of a special purple color begin to appear. The place of localization is the ankle and the surface of the foot.

The initial stage is characterized by:

  • afternoon swelling that disappears in the morning;
  • the appearance of excruciating pain after long standing;
  • heaviness in the legs.

In the first stage, the following developments:

  • vascular reticulum,
  • increased fatigue,
  • the appearance of venous nodes,
  • regular night cramps
  • burning sensation in the calf muscles.

For the second stage, the following symptoms are typical:

  • increased number of spider veins;
  • increased venous nodules;
  • increased swelling and pain syndrome;
  • itching in areas of inflammation;
  • dry skin, appearance of pigmented areas.

The third stage is accompanied by:

  • strong trophic changes - increased dryness and darkening of the skin in the ankle area;
  • formation of dermatitis and eczema;
  • growth of existing venous nodes, in case of damage, long healing ulcers are formed;
  • development of thrombophlebitis and thrombosis.

Important! The presence of complications is indicated by an increase in body temperature.

With the formation of deep varicose veins, the following symptoms occur:

  • increased body temperature against the background of deterioration of general well -being;
  • pale and even cyanosis of the skin;
  • feeling hot in the affected vein area;
  • pain, aggravated by bending the limb at the knee joint;
  • persistence of edema after night rest;
  • an increase in the number of inflamed limbs;
  • seizures that arise at any time of the day;
  • clear venous network.

Important! With the development of thrombosis, symptoms develop suddenly.

Diagnosis of varicose veins

Diagnosing varicose veins is not difficult. Ultrasound examination, venous x-rays using contrast, and blood tests to determine the rate of clotting must be prescribed.

Conservative treatment

Conservative therapy of the disease involves adherence to a diet, wearing compression pants and taking medication.


Being overweight is one of the factors that provoke the development of varicose veins. You must exclude completely from the menu:

  • spicy / salty / smoked foods and dishes;
  • pickler;
  • alcohol.

The main part of the diet should be fresh vegetables and fruits, foods rich in fiber (they improve intestinal function, prevent the development of constipation), seafood.

Food must be fractional: at least 4 times a day.

Stop smoking

Smoking must be stopped completely. This requirement applies to both men and women / girls. Inhaled resin causes blockage of blood vessels, and carbon dioxide causes it to spasm. This increases the risk of blood clots and associated secondary complications.

quit smoking as part of complex therapy of varicose veins

Compression underwear (stockings, knee -high, tights)

Wearing compression underwear is recommended as prophylaxis and treatment for the early stages of pathology. You need to wear it in the morning without waking up.

Important! When buying underwear, it is necessary to take into account the degree of compression, therefore, the treating physician should choose it. Only a specialist can take into account the existing symptoms properly.

Varicose veins: drug treatment

It is impossible to get rid of varicose veins completely by taking medication. But it is very possible to stop the progression of the disease and reduce severe symptoms.

Venotonic - ointments and gels

Venotonics are a drug that is often used in the treatment of varicose veins. They help protect the walls of veins, and also improve blood microcirculation by stimulating venous outflow.

Treatment with venotonic drugs is carried out twice a year. The duration of each is 2 months.

The drug is prescribed along with other drugs.

Venotonic tablets

The venotonic format in tablet form is recommended for deep vein lesions. They have proven themselves well:

  • Saponin derivatives. The basis of the drug is an extract of horse chestnut.
  • Preparations with active active ingredient - diosmin.
  • Rutoside. Course duration is from 2 months.

Phlebosclerosing drugs

Treatment of varicose veins with this group consists of the administration of phlebosclerosing medication intravenously or the imposition of an elastic bandage. After the introduction of the drug, the vascular lumen is gradually closed with connective tissue and removed from the general bloodstream.

Keep in mind that isolated sclerotherapy does not provide stable results and cannot slow the progression of the disease. Often, its use is combined with surgical treatment.

Important!At the preparatory stage, ultrasound examination of the lower part of the leg must be performed to exclude the presence of varicose lesions on the deep veins.

This technique has its own contraindications. Ia:

  • allergic reactions to drug components,
  • atherosclerotic lesions of the large ducts,
  • angiopathy of diabetic origin,
  • eliminate endarteritis,
  • blood clotting disorders,
  • thrombophlebitis,
  • gestation period.

Supplemental medication

As adjunctive drug therapy, the following groups of drugs are prescribed:

  • Means that increase blood circulation in the blood. They help reduce viscosity, speed up platelet breakdown, while increasing platelet elasticity. Together, these increase the process of blood supply to living tissues.
  • Means from the heparin group. They reduce the risk of blood clots and act as decongestant and anti-inflammatory agents.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Contributes to the elimination of pain and inflammation.

Phlebosclerosis therapy options

Phlebosclerosis therapy - adhesion of the vascular lumens - can be used in the following cases:

  • Before the start of surgery. Helps reduce the risk of bleeding and thrombosis during the early recovery period.
  • During operation. It is practiced as an alternative to vein removal surgery.
  • In the postoperative period. It is used for hardening of untreated venous areas.

Important!The puncture technique is used at all times, but the catheter technique is used exclusively during surgery.

Puncture method

The phlebosclerosis puncture method provides for the closure of large and only small veins. Processing is done from top to bottom.

The broken line is drawn in a vertical position. Then the person is laid down and medication is started. If necessary to treat a large area, the procedure is performed in several sessions. Recovery lasted for 2 weeks.

Upon completion of the sclerosing procedure, the following recommendations must be observed:

  • For weeks after surgery, elastic bandages are performed. For the first 7 days, the bandage was not removed.
  • After the end of the procedure, you need to move for 30 minutes.
  • During sleep, the legs should be in an elevated position.
  • During the day, you need to move as much as possible. It is not recommended to sit and stand for a long time.

Radio frequency venous ablation

Treatment of varicose veins with radio frequency transmitters is a new technique. During the procedure, the risk of vessel damage can be minimized as much as possible. At the same time, its effectiveness is very high: only the shell in the vessel is destroyed, the surrounding tissue does not suffer.

Treatment was performed with local anesthesia under the control of duplex angioscanning. Patients do not require hospital treatment.

The procedure itself looks like this:

  1. First, the patient receives an anesthetic. Then the inflamed veins pierce.
  2. A disposable catheter equipped with a micro transmitter is inserted into the venous lumen. Along the lumen of the vessel, it moves to the first communication vessel and moves to the veins located inside.
  3. Then it is removed gradually. During this period, internal irradiation of the ship is performed.
  4. The puncture area is fitted with an aseptic bandage. Compression stockings are placed on the treated limb.

The ability to work is restored after 24 hours.

the essence of the procedure for radio frequency ablation for varicose veins

Varicose veins: surgery

The decision to perform the surgery is according to the ability of the treating physician. Surgery is the only way to completely cure advanced varicose veins.

The following techniques are practiced:

  • joint phlebectomy;
  • endovasal electrocoagulation;
  • cryosurgery surgery;
  • intraoperative sclerobliteration;
  • endoscopic surgery;
  • laser freezing.

Joint phlebectomy

This is the most common method of varicose vein surgical treatment. The intervention was performed either under general anesthesia or with the implementation of epidural anesthesia.

The saphenous vein is removed through an incision of 1. 5 cm in the genital area (perineal area). It is used to introduce the phlebextractor probe. During its extraction, the inflamed venous area is removed. Small veins are removed through miniature incisions.

Upon completion of the operation, the patient wears compression stockings or an elastic bandage is performed.

Endovasal electrocoagulation

Removal of the venous area is performed by exposure to an electric current.


Vein removal is performed based on the use of low temperatures. The technique is relatively safe, but sometimes calculations based on freezing depth are wrong. It is rarely used.

In the operating room sclerobliteration

This technique involves the introduction of sclerosing drugs by the catheter method.

After cutting the saphenous vein, a catheter is inserted into its lumen. Simultaneously with its extraction, sclerosant is released.

Endoscopic surgery

Endoscopic surgical techniques allow ligation and exclusion of inflamed veins from the general blood flow system. The operation is performed using an endoscopic probe.

Important!A variant of the operation is transleumination phlebectomy.

Laser freezing

The procedure uses a medical laser. With its help, the damaged vein is sealed, as it is removed from the general bloodstream.

Home treatment for varicose veins

Home therapy for varicose veins is not just taking medication prescribed by a doctor. Alternative methods to treat this disease can also be used:

  • daily consumption of cranberries, it has a positive effect on overall well -being;
  • daily massage;
  • horse chestnut tincture to compress the legs;
  • Chicory drinks contain large amounts of vitamin C, which helps strengthen the immune system.

But alternative treatment practices cannot exclude selective drug therapy.

Prevention of varicose veins

Exercise physical activity is a major preventative measure for the development of varicose veins. If it is necessary to stand or sit for a long time, it is necessary to tighten the leg muscles periodically. Swimming and cycling will come in handy.

cycling as a way to prevent the development of varicose veins

What are the dangers of varicose veins if left untreated? In the absence of adequate therapy, the formation of non -healing trophic ulcers is not excluded, which can lead to complete disability. That is why, with the development of characteristic symptoms, it is necessary to contact a phlebologist and begin treatment.